|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($23)||Benefits minus costs||$1,158|
|Participants||($481)||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$298||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$638||benefits greater than the costs||51 %|
|Net program cost||$726|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,158|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Emergency department visits
Whether someone visited the emergency department, or the number of times they visited the emergency department.
A lack of stable housing, often measured through self-report of conditions like living on streets or in shelters in a given time period.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Mental health symptoms (such as symptoms of psychosis) in individuals with serious mental illness, measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$262||$0||$462||$131||$856|
|Alcohol use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||($208)||($489)||$0||$0||($697)|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||($2)||($3)||$0||($5)|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||($3)||($6)||$0||($187)||($196)|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$15||$35||$0||$0||$50|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$49||$8||$51||$25||$133|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$5||$12||$0||$378||$396|
|Emergency department visits||Health care associated with emergency department visits||($144)||($39)||($212)||($72)||($468)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$363||$363|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||($683)||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||$726|
|Comparison costs||$0||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Broner, N., Lattimore, P.K., Cowell, A.J., & Schlenger, W.E. (2004). Effects of diversion on adults with co-occurring mental illness and substance use: Outcomes from a national multi-site study. Behavior Sciences and the Law, 22(4), 519-541.
Rivera, S.C. (2013). Jail diversion and recidivism: Impact on community integration and treatment utilization. Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida.