|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,529||Benefits minus costs||($4,271)|
|Participants||$6,087||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.50|
|Others||$0||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($4,353)||benefits greater than the costs||39 %|
|Net program cost||($8,534)|
|Benefits minus cost||($4,271)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with employment||$2,710||$5,967||$0||$0||$8,676|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($4,262)||($4,262)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$8,284||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($8,534)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||31 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Bloom, D., Scrivener, S., Michalopoulos, C., Morris, P., Hendra, R., Adams-Ciardullo, D., . . . Vargas, W. (2002). Jobs First: Final report on Connecticut's welfare reform initiative. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
Bloom, H.S., Riccio, J.A., & Verma, N. (2005). Promoting work in public housing: The effectiveness of Jobs-Plus: Final report. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
Burghardt, J.A., Rangarajan, A., Gordon, A., & Kisker, E. (1992). Evaluation of the Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration: Volume I. New York, NY: Rockefeller Foundation.
Cave, G., Bos, H., Doolittle, F., & Toussaint, C. (1993). JOBSTART: Final report on a program for school dropouts. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
Fein, D., & Beecroft, E. (2006). College as a job advancement strategy: Final report on the New Visions Self-Sufficiency and Lifelong Learning Project. Bethesda, MD: Abt Associates.
Hollenbeck, K., & Huang, W.-J.(2014). Net impact and benefit-cost estimates of the workforce development system in Washington State (Upjohn Institute Technical Report No. 13-029). Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Hollenbeck, K., & Huang, W.-J. (2006). Net impact and benefit-cost estimates of the workforce development system in Washington State. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Hollenbeck, K., & Huang, W.-J. (2003). Net impact and benefit-cost estimates of the workforce development system in Washington State. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Jacobs, E., & Bloom, D. (2011). Alternative employment strategies for hard-to-employ TANF recipients: Final results from a test of transitional jobs and preemployment services in Philadelphia (OPRE Report 2011-19). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Maguire, S., Freely, J., Clymer, C., Conway, M., & Schwartz, D. (2010). Tuning in to local labor markets: Findings from the Sectoral Employment Impact Study. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.
Miller, C., Bos, J. M., Porter, K.E., Tseng, F.M., & Abe, Y. (2005). The challenge of repeating success in a changing world: Final report on the Center for Employment Training replication sites. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
Molina, F., Cheng, W.-L., & Hendra, R. (2008). Results from the Valuing Individual Success and Increasing Opportunities Now (VISION) program in Salem, Oregon. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
Navarro, D., van Dok, M., & Hendra, R. (2007). Results from the Post-Assistance Self-Sufficiency (PASS) program in Riverside, California. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
Smith, T., Christensen, K., & Cumpton, G. (2015). An evaluation of local investments in workforce development. Austin, TX: Ray Marshall Center for the Study of Human Resources.