|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$71||Benefits minus costs||($429)|
|Participants||$46||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.16|
|Others||$69||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($105)||benefits greater than the costs||38 %|
|Net program cost||($511)|
|Benefits minus cost||($429)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|K-12 special education||$3||$0||$0||$2||$5|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$13||$28||$0||$121||$161|
|Health care associated with major depression||$55||$18||$69||$29||$171|
|Costs of higher education||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($256)||($256)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,207||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($511)|
|Comparison costs||$733||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Major depressive disorder||11||426||-0.278||0.088||16||0.000||0.024||17||-0.595||0.001|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||5||293||-0.015||0.093||17||0.000||0.008||18||-0.039||0.698|
|Primary care visits||1||41||-0.086||0.214||16||0.000||0.019||17||-0.135||0.529|
Brent, D.A., Holder, D., Kolko, D., Birmaher, B., Baugher, M., Roth, C., . . . Johnson, B.A. (1997). A clinical psychotherapy trial for adolescent depression comparing cognitive, family, and supportive therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(9), 877-885.
Clarke, G.N., Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P.M., Hops, H., & Seeley, J.R. (1999). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of adolescent depression: Efficacy of acute group treatment and booster sessions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(3), 272-279.
Clarke, G.N., Hornbrook, M., Lynch, F., Polen, M., Gale, J., O'Connor, E., . . . Debar, L. (2002). Group cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescent offspring of depressed parents in a health maintenance organization. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(3), 305-313.
Kahn, J.S., Kehle, T.J., Jenson, W.R., & Clark, E. (1990). Comparison of cognitive-behavioral, relaxation, and self-modeling interventions for depression among middle-school students. School Psychology Review, 19(2), 196-211.
Kennard, B., Silva, S., Vitiello, B., Curry, J., Kratochvil, C., Simons, A., et al. (2006). Remission and residual symptoms after short-term treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(12), 1404-1411.
Lewinsohn, P.M., Clarke, G.N., Hops, H. & Andrews, J. (1990). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 21(4), 385-401.
March, J., Silva, S., Petrycki, S., Curry, J., Wells, K., Fairbank, J., et al. (2004). Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 292(7), 807-820.
Reynolds, W.M., & Coats, K.I. (1986). A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and relaxation training for the treatment of depression in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(5), 653-660.
Rohde, P., Clarke, G.N., Mace, D.E., Jorgensen, J.S., & Seeley, J.R. (2004). An efficacy/effectiveness study of cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with comorbid major depression and conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(6), 660-668.
Rossello, J., Bernal, G. (1999). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal treatments for depression in Puerto Rican adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 734-745.
Vitiello, B., Rohde, P., Silva, S., Wells, K., Casat, C., Waslick, B., et al. (2006). Functioning and quality of life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(12), 1419-1426.
Vostanis, P., Feehan, C., Grattan, E., & Bickerton, W.L. (1996). Treatment for children and adolescents with depression: Lessons from a controlled trial. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1(2), 199-212.
Vostanis, P., Feehan, C., & Grattan, E. (1998). Two-year outcome of children treated for depression. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 7(1), 12-8.
Wood, A., Harrington, R., & Moore, A. (1996). Controlled trial of a brief cognitive-behavioural intervention in adolescent patients with depressive disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 37(6), 737-746.