|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$5,418||Benefits minus costs||$20,807|
|Participants||$11,343||Benefit to cost ratio||$14.10|
|Others||$6,492||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($856)||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||($1,589)|
|Benefits minus cost||$20,807|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
Enroll in 4-year college
Enroll in a 4-year higher education institution.
Grade point average^
Non-standardized measure of student performance calculated across subjects.
Graduate with 2-year degree
Graduate with a degree from a 2-year higher education institution.
Graduate with 4-year degree
Graduate with a degree from a 4-year higher education institution.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|High school graduation||Criminal justice system||$42||$0||$104||$21||$167|
|Enroll in 2-year college||Labor market earnings associated with higher education||$5,541||$13,016||$6,994||$0||$25,551|
|Costs of higher education||($166)||($1,674)||($605)||($83)||($2,528)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($794)||($794)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$10,188||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($1,589)|
|Comparison costs||$8,695||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Cowan, J., & Goldhaber, D. (2015). How much of A ``Running Start'' do dual enrollment programs provide students? Review of Higher Education, 38(3), 425-460.
Karp, M.M., Calcagno, J.C., Hughes, K.L., Jeong, D.W., & Bailey, T.R. (2007). The postsecondary achievement of participants in dual enrollment: An analysis of student outcomes in two states. St. Paul, MN : National Research Center for Career and Technical Education.
Rodriguez, O., Belfield, C., Hughes, K.L., & National Center for Postsecondary Research (Ed). (2012). Bridging college and careers: Using dual enrollment to enhance careerand technical education pathways. Ncpr Brief.
Speroni, C. (2012). High school dual enrollment programs: Are we fast-tracking students too fast? Ncpr Brief. New York: National Center for Postsecondary Education.