Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$734||Benefits minus costs||($2,562)|
|Participants||$1,981||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.17|
|Others||($736)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,453)||benefits greater than the costs||42 %|
|Net program cost||($3,087)|
|Benefits minus cost||($2,562)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with smoking||$796||$1,870||$0||$0||$2,667|
|Health care associated with smoking||$366||$103||$378||$183||$1,030|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$3||$6||$0||$123||$132|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,544)||($1,544)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,855||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,087)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use disorder||16||1||146||-0.231||0.102||16||0.000||0.187||19||-0.231||0.024|
|Cannabis use disorder||16||1||146||-0.007||0.102||16||0.000||0.187||19||-0.007||0.944|
|Substance use disorder^||16||1||58||-0.017||0.228||16||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.017||0.939|
Chassin, L., Knight, G., Vargas-Chanes, D., Losoya, S.H., & Naranjo, D. (2009). Substance use treatment outcomes in a sample of male serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36 (2), 183-194.
Henderson, C.E., Wevodau, A.L., Henderson, S.E., Colbourn, S.L., Gharagozloo, L., North, L.W., & Lotts, V.A. (2016). An independent replication of the adolescent-community reinforcement approach with justice-involved youth. The American Journal on Addictions, 25 (3), 233-240.