|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,615||Benefits minus costs||$9,748|
|Participants||$5,365||Benefit to cost ratio||$33.42|
|Others||$2,171||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($102)||benefits greater than the costs||80 %|
|Net program cost||($301)|
|Benefits minus cost||$9,748|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$2,516||$5,539||$2,459||$0||$10,514|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$231||($63)||($251)||$115||$32|
|Costs of higher education||($132)||($112)||($36)||($66)||($346)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($151)||($151)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,398||2009||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($301)|
|Comparison costs||$1,298||2009||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Chambers, B., Cheung, A.C.K., Madden, N.A., Slavin, R.E., & Gifford, R. (2006). Achievement effects of embedded multimedia in a Success for All Reading program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 232-237.
Farver, J.A.M., Lonigan, C.J., & Eppe, S. (2009). Effective early literacy skill development for young Spanish-speaking English language learners: An experimental study of two methods. Child Development, 80(3), 703-719.
Solari, E.J., & Gerber, M.M. (2008). Early comprehension instruction for Spanish-speaking English language learners: Teaching text-level reading skills while maintaining effects on word-level skills. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(4), 155-168.
Troia, G.A. (2004). Migrant students with limited English proficiency: Can Fast ForWord Language make a difference in their language skills and academic achievement? Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 353-366.
Vaughn, S., Cirino, P.T., Tolar, T., Fletcher, J.M., Cardenas-Hagan, E., Carlson, C.D., & Francis, D.J. (2008). Long-term follow-up of Spanish and English interventions for first-grade English language learners at risk for reading problems. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 1(3), 179-214.