|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,031||Benefits minus costs||$7,641|
|Participants||$4,214||Benefit to cost ratio||$29.90|
|Others||$1,758||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($98)||benefits greater than the costs||78 %|
|Net program cost||($264)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,641|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,964||$4,324||$1,912||$0||$8,200|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$119||($33)||($130)||$60||$16|
|Costs of higher education||($52)||($78)||($24)||($26)||($179)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($132)||($132)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$260||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($264)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Abe, Y., Thomas, V., Sinicrope, C., & Gee, K.A. (2012). Effects of the Pacific CHILD professional development program. (NCEE 2013–4002). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Borman, K.M., Cotner, B.A., Lee, R.S., Boydston, T.L., & Lanehart, R. (2009). Improving elementary science instruction and student achievement: The impact of a professional development program. Paper presented at the Second Annual Conference of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Crystal City, VA.
Borman, G.D., Gamoran, A., & Bowdon, J. (2008). A randomized trial of teacher development in elementary science: First-year achievement effects. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 1(4), 237-264.
Carpenter, T.P., Fennema, E., Peterson, P.L., Chiang, C.P., & Loef, M. (1989). Using knowledge of children's mathematics thinking in classroom teaching: An experimental study. American Educational Research Journal, 26(4), 499-531.
Foster, J.M., Toma, E.F., & Troske, S.P. (2013). Does teacher professional development improve math and science outcomes and is it cost effective? Journal of Education Finance, 38(3), 255-275.
Garet, M.S., Cronen, S., Eaton, M., Kurki, A., Ludwig, M., Jones, W., . . . Silverberg, M. (2008). The impact of two professional development interventions on early reading instruction and achievement. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Garet, M.S., Wayne, A. J., Stancavage, F., Taylor, J., Walters, K., Song, M., . . . Warner, E. (2010). Middle school mathematics professional development impact study: Findings after the first year of implementation. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Heller, J.I., Daehler, K.R., Wong, N., Shinohara, M., & Miratrix, L. W. (2012). Differential effects of three professional development models on teacher knowledge and student achievement in elementary science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(3), 333-362.
Johnson, C.C., Kahle, J.B., & Fargo, J.D. (2007). A study of the effect of sustained, whole-school professional development on student achievement in science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(6), 775-786.
McCutchen, D., Abbott, R.D., Green, L.B., Beretvas, S.N., Cox, S., Potter, N.S., . . . Gray, A.L. (2002). Beginning literacy: Links among teacher knowledge, teacher practice, and student learning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(1), 69-86.
Santagata, R., Kersting, N., Givvin, K. B., & Stigler, J.W. (2011). Problem implementation as a lever for change: An experimental study of the effects of a professional development program on students' mathematics learning. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 4(1), 1-24.
Saxe, G., Gearhart, M., & Nasir, N. (2001). Enhancing students' understanding of mathematics: A study of three contrasting approaches to professional support. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 4(1), 55-79.