|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,149||Benefits minus costs||$3,348|
|Participants||$2,384||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.09|
|Others||$1,024||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($391)||benefits greater than the costs||56 %|
|Net program cost||($818)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,348|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,110||$2,444||$1,109||$0||$4,663|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$67||($18)||($73)||$33||$9|
|Costs of higher education||($28)||($42)||($12)||($14)||($96)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($410)||($410)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$794||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($818)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
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