|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$357||Benefits minus costs||($1,413)|
|Participants||$388||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.18|
|Others||$335||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($763)||benefits greater than the costs||12 %|
|Net program cost||($1,729)|
|Benefits minus cost||($1,413)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$172||$378||$173||$0||$723|
|K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|K-12 special education||$76||$0||$0||$37||$113|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$109||$35||$135||$54||$333|
|Costs of higher education||($17)||($26)||($8)||($8)||($60)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($854)||($854)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,610||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($1,729)|
|Comparison costs||$881||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||5||Primary||2||106||-0.170||0.140||7||-0.001||0.011||8||-0.566||0.001|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||5||Primary||5||319||-0.105||0.084||7||-0.050||0.048||10||-0.584||0.007|
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