|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$138||Benefits minus costs||$358|
|Participants||$106||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.34|
|Others||$158||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$22||benefits greater than the costs||56 %|
|Net program cost||($67)|
|Benefits minus cost||$358|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$46||$101||$46||$0||$192|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$92||$16||$97||$46||$252|
|Costs of higher education||($7)||($11)||($3)||($4)||($25)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$0||$0||$0||$9||$9|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($34)||($34)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$63||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($67)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use in high school||16||6||4467||-0.004||0.034||16||-0.004||0.034||18||-0.017||0.729|
|Cannabis use in high school||16||6||4467||-0.009||0.034||16||-0.009||0.034||18||-0.031||0.465|
|Illicit drug use in high school||16||6||4467||-0.027||0.034||16||-0.027||0.034||18||-0.098||0.058|
|Smoking in high school||16||6||4467||-0.010||0.033||16||-0.010||0.033||18||-0.040||0.420|
Rohrbach, L.A., Sun, P., & Sussman, S. (2010). One-year follow-up evaluation of the Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) dissemination trial. Preventive Medicine, 51, 313-319.
Sun, W., Skara, S., Sun, P., Dent, C.W., & Sussman, S. (2006). Project Towards No Drug Abuse: Long-term substance use outcomes evaluation. Preventive Medicine, 42(3), 188-192.
Sun, P., Sussman, S., Dent, C.W., & Rohrbach, L.A. (2008). One-year follow-up evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND-4). Preventive Medicine, 47(4), 438-442.
Sussman, S., Sun, P., McCuller, W.J., & Dent, C.W. (2003). Project Towards No Drug Abuse: Two-year outcomes of a trial that compares health educator delivery to self-instruction. Preventive Medicine, 37(2), 155-162.
Sussman, S., Sun, P., Rohrbach, L.A., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2012). One-year outcomes of a drug abuse prevention program for older teens and emerging adults: evaluating a motivational interviewing booster component. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 31(4), 476-85.
Valente, T.W., Ritt-Olson, A., Stacy, A., Unger, J.B., Okamoto, J., & Sussman, S. (2007). Peer acceleration: Effects of a social network tailored substance abuse prevention program among high-risk adolescents. Addiction, 102(11), 1804-1815.