|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$128||Benefits minus costs||$321|
|Participants||$88||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.70|
|Others||$155||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$19||benefits greater than the costs||54 %|
|Net program cost||($68)|
|Benefits minus cost||$321|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$35||$82||$45||$0||$162|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$91||$14||$93||$45||$244|
|Costs of higher education||($6)||($9)||($3)||($3)||($20)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$0||$0||$0||$7||$8|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($34)||($34)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$63||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($68)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||16||6||4467||-0.004||0.034||16||-0.004||0.034||18||-0.017||0.729|
|Cannabis use before end of high school||16||6||4467||-0.009||0.034||16||-0.009||0.034||18||-0.031||0.465|
|Illicit drug use before end of high school||16||6||4467||-0.027||0.034||16||-0.027||0.034||18||-0.098||0.058|
|Smoking before end of high school||16||6||4467||-0.010||0.033||16||-0.010||0.033||18||-0.040||0.420|
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