|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$947||Benefits minus costs||$2,504|
|Participants||$1,087||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.36|
|Others||$1,059||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($14)||benefits greater than the costs||61 %|
|Net program cost||($575)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,504|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|K-12 special education||$23||$0||$0||$12||$35|
|Labor market earnings associated with problem alcohol use||$451||$1,060||$0||$0||$1,511|
|Property loss associated with problem alcohol use||$0||$3||$6||$0||$10|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$69||$20||$72||$35||$195|
|Mortality associated with problem alcohol||$1||$3||$0||$26||$31|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($287)||($287)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$500||2009||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($575)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2009||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||12||2||514||-0.045||0.098||13||-0.045||0.098||18||-0.080||0.414|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||12||2||223||-0.022||0.136||12||-0.022||0.136||13||-0.058||0.680|
|Cannabis use before end of high school||12||1||147||-0.035||0.224||13||-0.035||0.224||18||-0.091||0.690|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||12||1||61||0.121||0.262||12||0.121||0.262||13||0.121||0.644|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||12||3||675||-0.037||0.061||13||-0.020||0.038||16||-0.072||0.235|
|Illicit drug use before end of high school||12||1||367||-0.025||0.293||13||-0.025||0.293||18||-0.025||0.933|
|Illicit drug use before end of middle school||12||1||62||0.000||0.261||12||0.000||0.261||13||0.000||1.000|
|Problem alcohol use||12||1||367||-0.071||0.253||13||-0.071||0.253||23||-0.071||0.781|
|Smoking before end of high school||12||2||514||0.010||0.125||13||0.010||0.125||18||-0.072||0.735|
|Smoking before end of middle school||12||1||62||0.000||0.261||12||0.000||0.261||13||0.000||1.000|
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