|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,076||Benefits minus costs||$3,301|
|Participants||$2,106||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.00|
|Others||$1,336||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($392)||benefits greater than the costs||71 %|
|Net program cost||($825)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,301|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,029||$2,265||$1,037||$0||$4,331|
|K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$2||$7|
|K-12 special education||$1||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$2||$3||$0||$5|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$1||$0||$1||$1||$3|
|Costs of higher education||($107)||($161)||($50)||($54)||($372)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($415)||($415)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$754||2009||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($825)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2009||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||1||153||-0.128||0.184||13||-0.128||0.184||18||-0.387||0.036|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||2||284||-0.007||0.103||13||-0.003||0.053||16||-0.055||0.741|
|Alcohol use in high school||1||152||-0.069||0.235||15||-0.069||0.235||18||-0.210||0.359|
|Smoking in high school||1||152||-0.172||0.219||15||-0.172||0.219||18||-0.523||0.019|
|Cannabis use in high school||1||152||-0.288||0.323||15||-0.288||0.323||18||-0.874||0.011|
|Illicit drug use in high school||1||151||-0.105||0.152||15||-0.105||0.152||18||-0.317||0.038|
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