|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$764||Benefits minus costs||$439|
|Participants||$1,523||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.23|
|Others||$928||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($901)||benefits greater than the costs||50 %|
|Net program cost||($1,876)|
|Benefits minus cost||$439|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$681||$1,499||$668||$0||$2,848|
|K-12 grade repetition||($255)||$0||$0||($128)||($383)|
|K-12 special education||$169||$0||$0||$85||$254|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$155||$51||$192||$78||$476|
|Costs of higher education||($18)||($27)||($8)||($9)||($61)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($943)||($943)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,694||2009||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($1,876)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2009||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||5||391||-0.200||0.078||8||-0.095||0.085||11||-0.284||0.003|
|Grade point average^||1||140||-0.086||0.123||8||-0.086||0.123||8||-0.086||0.486|
|K-12 grade repetition||1||140||0.288||0.212||8||0.288||0.212||9||0.288||0.176|
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Kratochwill, T.R., McDonald, L., Levin, J.R., Young Bear-Tibbetts, H., & Demaray, M.K. (2004). Families and Schools Together: An experimental analysis of a parent-mediated multi-family group program for American Indian children. Journal of School Psychology, 42(5), 359-383..
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McDonald, L. (2003). The Asian American FAST Project: Among Adaptation of Families and Schools Together. Madison, WIS: WCER.
McDonald, L., Moberg, D.P., Brown, R., Rodriguez-Espiricueta, I., Flores, N.I., Burke, M.P., & Coover, G. (2006). After-school multifamily groups: A randomized controlled trial involving low-income, urban, Latino children. Children and Schools, 28(1), 25-34.