|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,979||Benefits minus costs||$9,942|
|Participants||$7,572||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.33|
|Others||$3,995||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,616)||benefits greater than the costs||91 %|
|Net program cost||($2,987)|
|Benefits minus cost||$9,942|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
K-12 grade repetition
Repeating a grade. This is sometimes called "grade retention."
K-12 special education
Placement into special education services.
Number or percentage of school days present in a given enrollment period.
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Office discipline referrals^
Referrals of a student to an administrative office for disciplinary reasons.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$3,224||$7,572||$3,995||$0||$14,791|
|K-12 grade repetition||K-12 grade repetition||$52||$0||$0||$26||$78|
|K-12 special education||K-12 special education||($297)||$0||$0||($148)||($445)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,494)||($1,494)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$9,330||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,987)|
|Comparison costs||$6,384||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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