|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,615||Benefits minus costs||$6,624|
|Participants||$9,180||Benefit to cost ratio||$4.09|
|Others||($328)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($3,701)||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($2,141)|
|Benefits minus cost||$6,624|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Any employment, including part-time work.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Mental health symptoms (such as symptoms of psychosis) in individuals with serious mental illness, measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||($4)||$0||($11)||($2)||($17)|
|Alcohol use disorder||Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$0||$0||$0||$3||$4|
|Employment||Labor market earnings||$3,949||$9,277||$0||$0||$13,226|
|Major depressive disorder||Health care associated with major depression||$9||$3||$10||$5||$26|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||($318)||($49)||($327)||($159)||($853)|
|Mortality associated with illicit drugs||($22)||($51)||$0||($2,478)||($2,551)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,071)||($1,071)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,979||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,141)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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