|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$5,735||Benefits minus costs||$18,265|
|Participants||$9,995||Benefit to cost ratio||$44.85|
|Others||$1,736||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,216||benefits greater than the costs||72 %|
|Net program cost||($417)|
|Benefits minus cost||$18,265|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Alcohol use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Illicit drug use disorder
Clinical diagnosis of illicit drug use disorder or symptoms measured on a validated scale. When possible, we exclude cannabis/marijuana use disorder from this outcome.
Clinical diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Mental health symptoms (such as symptoms of psychosis) in individuals with serious mental illness, measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Alcohol use disorder||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||($14)||($33)||$0||$0||($47)|
|Health care associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||($1)|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Mortality associated with alcohol||$0||$0||$0||$0||($1)|
|Illicit drug use disorder||Mortality associated with illicit drugs||$22||$52||$0||$584||$658|
|Post-traumatic stress||Labor market earnings associated with PTSD||$4,045||$9,501||$0||$0||$13,546|
|Health care associated with PTSD||$1,682||$476||$1,736||$841||$4,734|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($208)||($208)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$526||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($417)|
|Comparison costs||$141||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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