|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$572||Benefits minus costs||$1,706|
|Participants||$1,283||Benefit to cost ratio||$11.24|
|Others||$40||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($23)||benefits greater than the costs||66 %|
|Net program cost||($167)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,706|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with problem alcohol use||$541||$1,271||$0||$0||$1,812|
|Property loss associated with problem alcohol use||$0||$3||$6||$0||$10|
|Health care associated with problem alcohol use||$29||$5||$32||$15||$82|
|Mortality associated with problem alcohol||$2||$4||$0||$46||$51|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($83)||($83)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$151||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($167)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Drinking and driving^||39||1||62||-0.686||0.340||40||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.686||0.043|
|Problem alcohol use||39||15||1403||-0.170||0.050||40||-0.023||0.075||42||-0.170||0.001|
Antti-Poika, I., Karaharju, E., Roine, R., & Salaspuro, M. (1988). Intervention of heavy-drinking-a prospective and controlled study of 438 consecutive injured male patients. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 23(2), 115-121.
Bager, P., & Vilstrup, H. (2010). Post-discharge brief intervention increases the frequency of alcohol abstinence-a randomized trial. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 21(1), 37-41.
Chick, J., Lloyd, G., & Crombie, E. (1985). Counseling problem drinkers in medical wards: A controlled study. British Medical Journal, 290, 965-967.
Elvy, G.A., J.E. Wells, and K.A. Baird. (1988). Attempted referral as intervention for problem drinking in the general hospital. British Journal of Addiction, 83(1), 83-89.
Freyer-Adam, J., Coder, B., Baumeister, S.E., Bischof, G., Riedel, J., Paatsch, K., Wedler, B., ... Hapke, U. (2008). Brief alcohol intervention for general hospital inpatients: A randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 93(3), 233-243.
Heather, N., Rollnick, S., Bell, A., & Richmond, R. (1996). Effects of brief counseling among male heavy drinkers identified on general hospital wards. Drug and Alcohol Review, 15(1), 29-38.
Holloway, A.S., Watson, H.E., Arthur, A.J., Starr, G., McFadyen, A.K., & McIntosh, J. (2007). The effect of brief interventions on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers in a general hospital setting. Addiction, 102(11), 1762-1770.
Kuchipudi, V., Hobein, K., Flickinger, A., & Iber, F.L. (1990). Failure of a 2-hour motivational intervention to alter recurrent drinking behavior in alcoholics with gastrointestinal disease. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51(4), 356-360.
Liu, S.-I., Wu, S.-I., Chen, S.-C., Huang, H.-C., Sun, F.-J., Fang, C.-K., Hsu, C.-C., ... Shih, S.-C. (2011). Randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in hospitalized Taiwanese men. Addiction, 106(5), 928-940.
Saitz, R., Palfai, T.P., Cheng, D.M., Horton, N.J., Freedner, N., Dukes, K., Kraemer, K.L., . . . Samet, J.H. (2007). Brief intervention for medical inpatients with unhealthy alcohol use: A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146(3), 167-176.
Schermer, C.R., Moyers, T.B., Miller, W.R., & Bloomfield, L.A. (2006). Trauma center brief interventions for alcohol disorders decrease subsequent driving under the influence arrests. The Journal of Trauma, 60(1), 29-34.
Shiles, C.J., Canning, U.P., Kennell-Webb, S.A., Gunstone, C.M., Marshall, E.J., Peters, T.J., & Wessely, S.C. (2013). Randomised controlled trial of a brief alcohol intervention in a general hospital setting. Trials, 14, 345.
Shourie, S., Conigrave, K.M., Proude, E.M., Ward, J.E., Wutzke, S.E., & Haber, P.S. (2006). The effectiveness of a tailored intervention for excessive alcohol consumption prior to elective surgery. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 41(6), 643-649.
Smith, A.J., Hodgson, R.J., Bridgeman, K., & Shepherd, J.P. (2003). A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention after alcohol-related facial injury RESEARCH REPORT. Addiction, 98(1), 43-52.