|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$620||Benefits minus costs||$5,406|
|Participants||$961||Benefit to cost ratio||$21.57|
|Others||$192||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$3,896||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($263)|
|Benefits minus cost||$5,406|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$5||$9||$0||$13|
|Labor market earnings associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$419||$922||$0||$3,923||$5,264|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||$200||$35||$180||$103||$518|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($131)||($131)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$842||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2015 dollars)||($263)|
|Comparison costs||$584||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol abuse or dependence||7||190||-0.229||0.122||37||0.000||0.187||40||-0.229||0.060|
|Illicit drug abuse or dependence||6||312||-0.218||0.095||37||0.000||0.187||40||-0.218||0.021|
Ball, S.A., Todd, M., Tennen, H., Armeli, S., Mohr, C., Affleck, G., & Kranzler, H.R. (2007). Brief motivational enhancement and coping skills interventions for heavy drinking. Addictive Behaviors, 32(6), 1105-1118.
Balldin, J., Berglund, M., Borg, S., Magnsson, M., Bendtsen, P., Franck, J., . . . Willander, A. (2003). A 6-month controlled naltrexone study: combined effect with cognitive behavioral therapy in outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(7), 1142-1149.
Carroll, K.M., Rounsaville, B.J., Gordon, L.T., Nich, C., Jatlow, P.M. & Bisighini, R.M. (1994). Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Ambulatory Cocaine Abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(3), 177-187.
Carroll, K., Nich, C., Ball, S., Mccance, E., & Rounsavile, B. (1998). Treatment of cocaine and alcohol dependence with psychotherapy and disulfiram. Addiction, 93(5), 713-727.
Chaney, E.F., M.R. O'Leary, and A.G. Marlatt. (1978). Skill Training With Alcoholics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(5), 1092-1104.
Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R.F., Gillmore, M.R. & Wells, E.A. (1989). Skills Training for Drug Abusers: Generalization, Maintenance, and Effects on Drug Use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(4), 559-563.
Hien, D.A., Cohen, L.R., Miele, G.M., Litt, L.C., Capstick, C. 2004. Promising treatments for women with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(8), 1426-1432.
Kadden, R.M., Cooney, N.L., Getter, H., & Litt, M.D. (1989). Matching alcoholics to coping skills or interactional therapies: Posttreatment results. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(6), 698-704.
Monti, P., Rohsenow, D., Michalec, E., Martin, R., & Abrams, D. (1997). Brief coping skills treatment for cocaine abuse: substance use outcomes at three months. Addiction, 92(12), 1717-1728.
O'Malley, S.S., Jaffe, A.J., Chang, G., Schottenfeld, R.S., Meyer, R.E., & Rounsaville, B. (1992). Naltrexone and coping skills therapy for alcohol dependence: A controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(11), 881-887.
Sanchez-Craig, M., & Walker, K. (1982). Teaching coping skills to chronic alcoholics in a coeducational halfway house: I. Assessment of programme effects. British Journal of Addiction, 77(1), 35-50.