|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$99||Benefits minus costs||($127)|
|Participants||$4||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.62|
|Others||$224||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($116)||benefits greater than the costs||49 %|
|Net program cost||($339)|
|Benefits minus cost||($127)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|K-12 special education||$3||$0||$0||$2||$5|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$3||$0||$4|
|Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$8||$2||$9||$5||$24|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($170)||($170)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$164||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($339)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use in high school||12||1||500||-0.017||0.152||18||-0.017||0.152||18||-0.050||0.741|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||12||1||386||-0.116||0.208||13||-0.116||0.208||14||-0.350||0.092|
|Cannabis use in high school||12||1||500||-0.041||0.152||18||-0.041||0.152||18||-0.126||0.410|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||12||1||386||-0.101||0.208||13||-0.101||0.208||14||-0.305||0.142|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||12||1||500||-0.004||0.152||17||-0.002||0.091||20||-0.012||0.939|
|Grade point average^||12||1||500||-0.020||0.152||18||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.062||0.685|
|Major depressive disorder||12||1||52||-0.098||0.468||15||0.000||0.039||16||-0.296||0.527|
|Smoking in high school||12||1||500||-0.048||0.152||14||-0.048||0.152||18||-0.145||0.342|
|Smoking before end of middle school||12||1||386||-0.240||0.208||13||-0.240||0.208||14||-0.727||0.001|
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