|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$191||Benefits minus costs||$463|
|Participants||$284||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.39|
|Others||$233||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($51)||benefits greater than the costs||70 %|
|Net program cost||($194)|
|Benefits minus cost||$463|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$135||$298||$136||$0||$569|
|Health care associated with smoking||$57||$16||$59||$29||$161|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$1||$0||$1|
|Costs of higher education||($21)||($32)||($9)||($10)||($72)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$0||$1||$0||$18||$20|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($97)||($97)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$64||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($194)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||12||3||4057||-0.034||0.021||12||-0.034||0.021||14||-0.094||0.001|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||12||1||951||-0.033||0.100||12||-0.033||0.100||14||-0.099||0.336|
|Smoking before end of middle school||12||1||951||-0.059||0.061||12||-0.059||0.061||14||-0.179||0.004|
|Youth binge drinking||12||1||1401||-0.025||0.037||12||-0.025||0.037||22||-0.076||0.039|
Komro, K.A., Perry, C.L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Farbakhsh, K., Toomey, T.L., Stigler, M.H., Jones-Webb, R., . . . Williams, C.L. ( 2008). Outcomes from a randomized controlled trial of a multi-component alcohol use preventive intervention for urban youth: Project Northland Chicago. Addiction, 103(4), 606-618.
Perry, C.L. et al. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a communitywide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86(7), 956-965.
Perry, C.L., Williams, C.L., Komro, K.A., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Stigler, M.H., Munson, K.A., et al. (2002). Project Northland: Long-term outcomes of community action to reduce adolescent alcohol use. Health Education Research, 17(1), 117-132.
West, B., Abatemarco, D., Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Zec, V., Russo, A., & Milic, R. (2008). Project Northland in Croatia: results and lessons learned. Journal of Drug Education, 38(1), 55-70.