|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$544||Benefits minus costs||$1,988|
|Participants||$761||Benefit to cost ratio||$19.75|
|Others||$703||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$87||benefits greater than the costs||96 %|
|Net program cost||($106)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,988|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$363||$798||$367||$0||$1,528|
|Health care associated with smoking||$153||$43||$158||$77||$432|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$2||$4||$0||$7|
|Costs of higher education||($57)||($86)||($26)||($28)||($196)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$1||$3||$0||$50||$54|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($53)||($53)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$101||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($106)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||12||4||4978||-0.190||0.092||13||-0.190||0.092||14||-0.190||0.040|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||12||3||3917||-0.206||0.174||13||-0.206||0.174||14||-0.206||0.237|
|Initiation of sexual activity^||12||1||911||-0.032||0.047||13||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.032||0.500|
|Smoking before end of middle school||12||3||3907||-0.173||0.083||13||-0.173||0.083||14||-0.173||0.037|
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