|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($224)||Benefits minus costs||($767)|
|Participants||($295)||Benefit to cost ratio||($12.51)|
|Others||($109)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($82)||benefits greater than the costs||45 %|
|Net program cost||($57)|
|Benefits minus cost||($767)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Health care associated with smoking||$19||$5||$20||$10||$54|
|Labor market earnings associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$193||$453||$0||$0||$646|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$1||$1||$0||$2|
|Health care associated with illicit drug abuse or dependence||($122)||($19)||($125)||($61)||($327)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$0||$0||$0||$6||$6|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||($334)||($736)||($51)||($47)||($1,167)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$54||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($57)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of high school||11||1||248||0.052||0.120||15||0.052||0.120||18||0.052||0.664|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||11||6||6304||-0.065||0.058||12||-0.065||0.058||13||-0.065||0.267|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||11||1||341||-0.048||0.114||12||-0.048||0.114||13||-0.048||0.672|
|Illicit drug use before end of high school||11||1||248||0.038||0.120||15||0.038||0.120||18||0.038||0.749|
|Smoking before end of high school||11||1||248||0.014||0.120||15||0.014||0.120||18||0.014||0.910|
|Smoking before end of middle school||11||6||6304||-0.044||0.037||12||-0.044||0.037||13||-0.044||0.237|
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