|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,714||Benefits minus costs||$28,669|
|Participants||$3,348||Benefit to cost ratio||$126.77|
|Others||$339||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$23,496||benefits greater than the costs||95 %|
|Net program cost||($228)|
|Benefits minus cost||$28,669|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Smoking tobacco on a regular basis.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Regular smoking||Labor market earnings associated with smoking||$1,282||$3,011||$0||$0||$4,293|
|Health care associated with smoking||$328||$93||$339||$164||$923|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$104||$244||$0||$23,446||$23,794|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($114)||($114)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$214||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($228)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
An, L.C., Zhu, S.H., Nelson, D.B., Arikian, N.J., Nugent, S., Partin, M.R., & Joseph, A.M. (2006). Benefits of telephone care over primary care for smoking cessation: a randomized trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(5), 536-42.
Joyce, G.F., Niaura, R., Maglione, M., Mongoven, J., Larson-Rotter, C., Coan, J., Lapin, P., ... Morton, S. (2008). The effectiveness of covering smoking cessation services for Medicare beneficiaries. Blackwell Science Inc.
McFall, S.L., Michener, A., Rubin, D., Flay, B.R., Mermelstein, R.J., Burton, D., Jelen, P., ... Warnecke, R.B. (1993). The effects and use of maintenance newsletters in a smoking cessation intervention. Addictive Behaviors, 18 (2), 151-158.
Orleans, C.T., Schoenbach, V.J., Wagner, E.H., Quade, D., Salmon, M.A., Pearson, D.C., . . . Kaplan, B.H. (1991). Self-help quit smoking interventions: Effects of self-help materials, social support instructions, and telephone counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59 (3), 439-448.
Ossip-Klein, D.J., Giovion, G.A., Megahed, N. Black, P.M., Emont, S.L., Stiggins, J., Shulman, E. Moore, L. (1991) Effects of a smokers' hotline: Results of a 10-county self-help trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(2), 325-332.