|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,623||Benefits minus costs||$10,549|
|Participants||$3,250||Benefit to cost ratio||$79.81|
|Others||$174||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$5,636||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||($134)|
|Benefits minus cost||$10,549|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with smoking||$1,398||$3,079||$0||$0||$4,477|
|Health care associated with smoking||$168||$48||$174||$85||$474|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$56||$124||$0||$5,618||$5,798|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($67)||($67)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$214||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($134)|
|Comparison costs||$84||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Borland, R., Segan, C.J., Livingston, P.M., & Owen, N. (2001). The effectiveness of callback counselling for smoking cessation: a randomized trial. Addiction, 96(6), 881-9.
Borland, R., Balmford, J., Segan, C., Livingston, P., & Owen, N. (2003). The effectiveness of personalized smoking cessation strategies for callers to a Quitline service. Addiction, 98(6), 837-846.
Gilbert, H., & Sutton, S. (2006). Evaluating the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in a randomized controlled trial. Addiction, 101,(4), 590-598.
Hollis, J.F., McAfee, T.A., Fellows, J.L., Zbikowski, S.M., & Stark, M. (2007). The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of telephone counselling and the nicotine patch in a state tobacco quitline. BMJ Group.
Rabius, V., McAlister, A.L., Geiger, A., Huang, P., & Todd, R. (2004). Telephone counseling increases cessation rates among young adult smokers. Health Psychology, 23(5), 539-41.
Rabius, V., Pike, K.J., Hunter, J., Wiatrek, D., & McAlister, A.L. (2007). Effects of frequency and duration in telephone counselling for smoking cessation. BMJ Group.
Sims, T.H., McAfee, T., Fraser, D.L., Baker, T.B., Fiore, M.C., & Smith, S.S. (2013). Quitline cessation counseling for young adult smokers: a randomized clinical trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 15(5), 932-41.
Smith, P.M., Cameron, R., McDonald, P.W., Kawash, B., Madill, C., & Brown, K.S. (2004). Telephone counseling for population-based smoking cessation. American Journal of Health Behavior, 28(3), 231-241.
Zhu, S.H., Stretch, V., Balabanis M., Rosbrook, B., Sadler, G., & Pierce, J.P. (1996). Telephone counseling for smoking cessation: Effects of single-session and multiple-session interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(1), 202-211.
Zhu, S.H., Cummins, S.E., Wong, S., Gamst, A.C., Tedeschi, G.J., & Reyes-Nocon, J. (2012). The effects of a multilingual telephone quitline for Asian smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 104,(4), 299-310.