|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$393||Benefits minus costs||$1,673|
|Participants||$738||Benefit to cost ratio||$58.64|
|Others||$521||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$49||benefits greater than the costs||100 %|
|Net program cost||($29)|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,673|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$335||$787||$430||$0||$1,552|
|Health care associated with smoking||$112||$32||$115||$56||$314|
|Costs of higher education||($54)||($82)||($24)||($27)||($187)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$1||$2||$0||$35||$38|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($15)||($15)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$27||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($29)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||12||2||2108||-0.194||0.048||12||-0.194||0.048||13||-0.194||0.001|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||12||2||2108||-0.254||0.052||12||-0.254||0.052||13||-0.254||0.001|
|Smoking before end of high school||12||6||9045||-0.047||0.017||13||-0.047||0.017||18||-0.047||0.006|
|Smoking before end of middle school||12||2||2108||-0.294||0.052||12||-0.294||0.052||13||-0.294||0.001|
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