|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$36||Benefits minus costs||($370)|
|Participants||$17||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.07)|
|Others||$75||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($152)||benefits greater than the costs||43 %|
|Net program cost||($345)|
|Benefits minus cost||($370)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with obesity||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with obesity||$36||$16||$75||$18||$145|
|Mortality associated with obesity||$0||$0||$0||$2||$2|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($172)||($172)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$328||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($345)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Bocca, G., Corpeleijn, E., Stolk, R.P., & Sauer, P.J. (2012). Results of a multidisciplinary treatment program in 3-year-old to 5-year-old overweight or obese children: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166(12), 1109-15.
Davis, J. N., Tung, A., Chak, S. S., Ventura, E. E., Byrd-Williams, C. E., Alexander, K. E. et al. (2009). Aerobic and strength training reduces adiposity in overweight latina adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 1494-1503.
DeBar, L.L., Stevens, V.J., Perrin, N., Wu, P., Pearson, J., Yarborough, B.J., Dickerson, J., & Lynch, F. (2012). A primary care-based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention for overweight adolescent females. Pediatrics, 129(3), 611-20.
Díaz, R.G., Esparza-Romero, J., Moya-Camarena, S.Y., Robles-Sardín, A.E., & Valencia, M.E. (2010). Lifestyle intervention in primary care settings improves obesity parameters among Mexican youth. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(2), 285-90.
Ford, A.L., Bergh, C., Södersten, P., Sabin, M.A., Hollinghurst, S., Hunt, L.P., & Shield, J.P. (2010). Treatment of childhood obesity by retraining eating behaviour: A randomised controlled trial. BMJ, doi: 10.1136/bmjb5388..
Israel, A.C., Stolmaker, L., & Andrian, C.A.G. (1985). The effects of training parents in general child management skills on a behavioral weight loss program for children. Behavior Therapy, 16(2), 169-180.
Janicke, D.M., Sallinen, B.J., Perri, M.G., Lutes, L.D., Huerta, M., Silverstein, J.H., & Brumback, B. (2008). Comparison of parent-only vs family-based interventions for overweight children in underserved rural settings: outcomes from project STORY. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(12), 1119-1125.
Kalarchian, M.A., Levine, M.D., Arslanian, S.A., Ewing, L.J., Houck, P.R., Cheng, Y., Ringham, R.M., ... Marcus, M.D. (2009). Family-based treatment of severe pediatric obesity: randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 124(4), 1060-1068.
Kalavainen, M.P., Korppi, M.O., & Nuutinen, O.M. (2007). Clinical efficacy of group-based treatment for childhood obesity compared with routinely given individual counseling. International Journal of Obesity, 31(10), 1500-8.
Nemet, D., Barkan, S., Epstein, Y., Friedland, O., Kowen, G., & Eliakim, A. (2005). Short- and long-term beneficial effects of a combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 115(4), 443-9.
Nemet, D., Barzilay-Teeni, N., & Eliakim, A. (2008). Treatment of childhood obesity in obese families. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 21(5), 461-7.
Reinehr, T., Schaefer, A., Winkel, K., Finne, E., Toschke, A.M., & Kolip, P. (2010). An effective lifestyle intervention in overweight children: findings from a randomized controlled trial on "Obeldicks light." Clinical Nutrition, 29(3), 331-6.
Rocchini, A.P., Katch, V., Anderson, J., Hinderliter, J., Becque, D., Martin, M., & Marks, C. (1988). Blood pressure in obese adolescents: effect of weight loss. Pediatrics, 82(1), 16-23.
Sacher, P.M., Kolotourou, M., Chadwick, P.M., Cole, T.J., Lawson, M.S., Lucas, A. et al. (2010). Randomized controlled trial of the MEND program: A family-based community intervention for childhood obesity. Obesity, 18, S62-S68.
Savoye, M., Shaw, M., Dziura, J., Tamborlane, W.V., Rose, P., Guandalini, C., Goldberg-Gell, R., ... Caprio, S. (2007). Effects of a weight management program on body composition and metabolic parameters in overweight children: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(24), 2697-2704.
Weigel, C., Kokocinski, K., Lederer, P., Dötsch, J., Rascher, W., & Knerr, I. (2008). Childhood obesity: Concept, feasibility, and interim results of a local group-based, long-term treatment program. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 40(6), 369-373.