|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,032||Benefits minus costs||$3,374|
|Participants||$2,258||Benefit to cost ratio||$6.45|
|Others||$1,018||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($314)||benefits greater than the costs||68 %|
|Net program cost||($619)|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,374|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,042||$2,296||$1,015||$0||$4,353|
|K-12 special education||$7||$0||$0||$3||$10|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$8||$3||$10||$4||$24|
|Costs of higher education||($27)||($41)||($12)||($13)||($93)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($309)||($309)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$207||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($619)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||10||1||7006||-0.041||0.018||13||-0.019||0.012||16||-0.041||0.026|
|Office discipline referrals^||10||1||7006||-0.252||0.092||13||-0.252||0.092||13||-0.252||0.006|
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