|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$325||Benefits minus costs||$171|
|Participants||$162||Benefit to cost ratio||$1.35|
|Others||$274||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($105)||benefits greater than the costs||51 %|
|Net program cost||($484)|
|Benefits minus cost||$171|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder^^
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Stress reported by a parent, typically measured on a validated scale such as the Parental Stress Index.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||Criminal justice system||$8||$0||$18||$4||$31|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$51||$121||$66||$0||$238|
|K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$1||$2|
|K-12 special education||$84||$0||$0||$42||$127|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$187||$53||$193||$94||$526|
|Costs of higher education||($8)||($12)||($4)||($4)||($28)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($242)||($242)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,389||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($484)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||40 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Abikoff, H.B., Thompson, M., Laver-Bradbury, C., Long, N., Forehand, R.L., Miller, B.L., . . . Sonuga-Barke, E. (2014). Parent training for preschool ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(6), 618-631.
Wells, K.C, & Egan, J. (1988). Social learning and systems family therapy for childhood oppositional disorder: Comparative treatment outcome. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 29(2), 138-146.