|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$87||Benefits minus costs||($425)|
|Participants||$25||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.08|
|Others||$86||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($161)||benefits greater than the costs||49 %|
|Net program cost||($462)|
|Benefits minus cost||($425)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (e.g., general anxiety, panic, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
How well individuals (typically those who are developmentally disabled or seriously mentally ill) have adapted to activities of daily living.
Admission to a psychiatric ward or hospital.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
Major depressive disorder
Clinical diagnosis of major depression or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
Visits to a specialist healthcare provider, such as an oncologist or an endocrinologist.
Thinking about and/or planning death by suicide.
An attempt to die by suicide resulting in survival.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$1||$2|
|Major depressive disorder||Labor market earnings associated with major depression||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Health care associated with major depression||$75||$21||$77||$37||$211|
|Mortality associated with depression||$2||$4||$0||$28||$33|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||$0||$0||($1)||$0||($1)|
|K-12 special education||$0||$0||$0||$0||($1)|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||($2)||($1)||($3)||($1)||($7)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($225)||($200)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,245||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($462)|
|Comparison costs||$753||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||15 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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