|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$66||Benefits minus costs||($856)|
|Participants||($871)||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.14)|
|Others||$875||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($174)||benefits greater than the costs||49 %|
|Net program cost||($751)|
|Benefits minus cost||($856)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|K-12 grade repetition||$1||$0||$0||$0||$1|
|K-12 special education||$30||$0||$0||$15||$45|
|Labor market earnings associated with problem alcohol use||($376)||($883)||$0||$0||($1,260)|
|Property loss associated with problem alcohol use||$0||($2)||($4)||$0||($7)|
|Health care associated with problem alcohol use||($29)||($5)||($32)||($15)||($82)|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$80||$23||$83||$40||$226|
|Mortality associated with problem alcohol||($1)||($3)||$0||($20)||($24)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($376)||($376)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$817||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($751)|
|Comparison costs||$101||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||9||3||321||-0.042||0.091||9||-0.023||0.056||12||-0.123||0.234|
|Illicit drug use before end of high school||9||2||150||-0.041||0.168||15||-0.041||0.168||18||-0.107||0.524|
|Problem alcohol use||9||1||134||0.055||0.471||24||0.055||0.471||34||0.144||0.760|
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Sandler, I., Gunn, H., Mazza, G., Tein, J.Y., Wolchik, S., Berkel, C., . . . Porter, M. (2018). Effects of a program to promote high quality parenting by divorced and separated fathers. Prevention Science, 19(4), 538-548.
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