Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$6,894||Benefits minus costs||$21,355|
|Participants||$1,426||Benefit to cost ratio||$5.29|
|Others||$17,407||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$605||benefits greater than the costs||88 %|
|Net program cost||($4,978)|
|Benefits minus cost||$21,355|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$6,342||$0||$16,559||$3,171||$26,072|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$707||$1,661||$919||$0||$3,286|
|Costs of higher education||($155)||($234)||($70)||($77)||($537)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,489)||($2,489)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$27,863||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($4,978)|
|Comparison costs||$22,427||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Kirigin, K.A., Braukmann, C.J., Atwater, J.D., & Wolf, M.M. (1982). An evaluation of teaching-family (Achievement Place) group homes for juvenile offenders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15(1), 1-16.
Wolf, M.M., Phillips, E.L., & Fixsen, D.L. (1974). Achievement Place: Phase II. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.