Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$10,667||Benefits minus costs||$37,882|
|Participants||$2,477||Benefit to cost ratio||$13.64|
|Others||$24,513||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$3,221||benefits greater than the costs||92 %|
|Net program cost||($2,996)|
|Benefits minus cost||$37,882|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms^^
Clinical diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (e.g., conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) or symptoms measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||$9,709||$0||$23,037||$4,855||$37,601|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,230||$2,889||$1,599||$0||$5,717|
|Costs of higher education||($272)||($412)||($123)||($136)||($943)|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,498)||($1,498)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$2,844||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($2,996)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Dembo, R., Ramirez-Garnica, G., Rollie, M., Schmeidler, J., Livingston, S., & Hartsfield, A. (2000). Youth recidivism twelve months after a family empowerment intervention: Final report. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 31, 29-65.
Hinton, W.J. (2004). Examining the impact of a family systems counseling approach for reducing the recidivism rates of first offender junveniles. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.
McPherson, S. J., McDonald, L. E., and Ryer, C. W. (1983). Intensive counseling with families of juvenile offenders. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 34, 27-33.