|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$6||Benefits minus costs||($145)|
|Participants||$9||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.24)|
|Others||$11||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($54)||benefits greater than the costs||48 %|
|Net program cost||($117)|
|Benefits minus cost||($145)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with obesity||$5||$10||$0||$3||$18|
|Health care associated with obesity||$2||($1)||$11||$2||$13|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($59)||($59)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$116||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($117)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Gortmaker, S.L., Peterson, K., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A. M., Dixit, S., Fox, M. K., & Laird, N. (1999). Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 153(4), 409-418.
Graf, C., Koch, B., Falkowski, G., Jouck, S., Christ, H., Staudenmaier, K., . . . Dordel, S. (2008). School-based prevention: Effects on obesity and physical performance after 4 years. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(10), 987-994.
Harrison, M., Burns, C.F., McGuinness, M., Heslin, J., & Murphy, N.M. (2006). Influence of a health education intervention on physical activity and screen time in primary school children: Switch Off-Get Active.Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(5), 388-394.
James, J., Thomas, P., Cavan, D., & Kerr, D. (2004). Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: Cluster randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 328(7450).
Lionis, C., Kafatos, A., Vlachonikolis, J., Vakaki, M., Tzortzi, M., & Petraki, A. (1991). The effects of a health education intervention program among Cretan adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 20(6), 685-699.
Robinson, T.N. (1999). Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(16), 1561-1567.
Spiegel, S.A. & Foulk, D. (2006). Reducing overweight through a multidisciplinary school-based intervention. Obesity, 14(1), 88-96.