|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4||Benefits minus costs||($350)|
|Participants||$12||Benefit to cost ratio||($0.40)|
|Others||$6||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($121)||benefits greater than the costs||46 %|
|Net program cost||($250)|
|Benefits minus cost||($350)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with obesity||$6||$14||$0||$1||$22|
|Health care associated with obesity||($2)||($2)||$6||$3||$4|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($125)||($125)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$247||2014||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($250)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2014||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Bayer, O., von Kries, R., Strauss, A., Mitschek, C., Toschke, A. M., Hose, A. et al. (2009). Short- and mid-term effects of a setting based prevention program to reduce obesity risk factors in children: a cluster-randomized trial. Clinical Nutrition, 28, 122-128.
De Bock, F., Breitenstein, L., & Fischer, J. E. (2012). Positive impact of a pre-school-based nutritional intervention on children's fruit and vegetable intake: results of a cluster-randomized trial. Public Health Nutrition, 15(3), 466-475.
Eliakim, A., Nemet, D., Balakirski, Y., & Epstein, Y. (2007). The effects of nutritional-physical activity school-based intervention on fatness and fitness in preschool children. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 20(6), 711-718.
Fitzgibbon, M.L., Stolley, M.R., Schiffer, L., Van Horn, L., KauferChristoffel, K., & Dyer, A. (2005). Two-year follow-up results for Hip-Hop to Health Jr.: a randomized controlled trial for overweight prevention in preschool minority children. The Journal of pediatrics, 146(5), 618-625.
Fitzgibbon, M.L., Stolley, M.R., Schiffer, L., Van, H.L., Kauferchristoffel, K., Dyer, A. (2006). Hip-Hop to Health Jr. for Latino Preschool Children. Obesity, 14(9), 1616.
Fitzgibbon, M.L., Stolley, M.R., Schiffer, L.A., Braunschweig, C.L., Gomez, S.L., Van, H.L., & Dyer, A.R. (2011). Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial: postintervention results. Obesity, 19(5), 994-1003.
Jouret, B., Ahluwalia, N., Dupuy, M., Cristini, C., Nègre-Pages, L., Grandjean, H., & Tauber, M. (2009). Prevention of overweight in preschool children: results of kindergarten-based interventions. International Journal of Obesity, 33(10), 1075-1083.
Nemet, D., Geva, D., Pantanowitz, M., Igbaria, N., Meckel, Y., & Eliakim, A. (2011). Health promotion intervention in Arab-Israeli kindergarten children. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 24(11-12), 1001-1007.
Nemet, D., Geva, D., & Eliakim, A. (2011). Health Promotion Intervention in Low Socioeconomic Kindergarten Children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 158(5), 796-801.
Puder, JJ, Marques-Vidal, P, Schindler, C, Zahner, L, Niederer, I, Bürgi, F, Ebenegger, V, ... Kriemler, S. (2011.). Effect of multidimensional lifestyle intervention on fitness and adiposity in predominantly migrant preschool children (Ballabeina): cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 343, d6195.
Reilly, J.J., Kelly, L., Montgomery, C., Williamson, A., Fisher, A., McColl, J.H., ... & Grant, S. (2006). Physical activity to prevent obesity in young children: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 333(7577), 1041-3.
Zask, A., Adams, J.K., Brooks, L O., & Hughes, D F. (2012). Tooty Fruity Vegie: an obesity prevention intervention evaluation in Australian preschools. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 23(1), 10-5.