|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,662||Benefits minus costs||$5,081|
|Participants||$2,034||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.30|
|Others||$852||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$4,440||benefits greater than the costs||82 %|
|Net program cost||($3,907)|
|Benefits minus cost||$5,081|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with opioid drug abuse or dependence||$556||$1,306||$0||$0||$1,862|
|Health care associated with opioid drug abuse or dependence||$847||$121||$849||$423||$2,241|
|Mortality associated with opioids||$258||$607||$0||$5,969||$6,835|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($1,954)||($1,954)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$3,613||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($3,907)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Opioid use disorder||37||8||623||-0.945||0.304||37||0.000||0.000||38||-0.945||0.002|
|STD risky behavior^||37||3||492||-0.559||0.242||37||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.559||0.021|
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