|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$61||Benefits minus costs||($104)|
|Participants||$17||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.36|
|Others||$62||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($81)||benefits greater than the costs||33 %|
|Net program cost||($163)|
|Benefits minus cost||($104)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Emergency department visits*
Whether someone visited the emergency department, or the number of times they visited the emergency department.
Health care costs*
Percent change in total medical costs.
Hospital admission, for any reason.
Visits to a specialist healthcare provider, such as an oncologist or an endocrinologist.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Health care costs||Health care (total costs)||$61||$17||$62||$0||$141|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($82)||($82)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$155||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($163)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Cuellar, A., Helmchen, L.A., Gimm, G., Want, J., Burla, S., Kells, B.J., . . . Nichols, L.M. (2016). The CareFirst patient-centered medical home program: cost and utilization effects in its first three years. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 1-7.
Friedberg, M.W., Schneider, E.C., Friedberg, M.W., Schneider, E.C., Friedberg, M.W., Schneider, E.C., Rosenthal, M.B., ... Volpp, K.G. (2015). Effects of a medical home and shared savings intervention on quality and utilization of care. Jama Internal Medicine, 175(8), 1362-1368.
Rosenthal, M.B., Alidina, S., Friedberg, M.W., Singer, S.J., Eastman, D., Li, Z., & Schneider, E.C. (2016). A difference-in-difference analysis of changes in quality, utilization and cost following the Colorado multi-payer patient-centered medical home pilot. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 31(3), 289-296.