|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$974||Benefits minus costs||$10,121|
|Participants||$940||Benefit to cost ratio||$47.61|
|Others||$583||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$7,841||benefits greater than the costs||98 %|
|Net program cost||($217)|
|Benefits minus cost||$10,121|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Health care associated with low birthweight births||$49||$2||$49||$24||$123|
|From secondary participant|
|Health care associated with NICU admissions||$535||$22||$535||$267||$1,359|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($109)||($109)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$446||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($217)|
|Comparison costs||$237||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Low birthweight births (< 2500g)***||27||Primary||4||151||-0.494||0.217||27||0.000||0.000||28||-0.494||0.023|
|Preterm birth (< 37 weeks)***||27||Primary||5||457||-0.340||0.130||27||0.000||0.000||28||-0.340||0.009|
|Smoking during late pregnancy^||27||Primary||7||516||-0.752||0.110||27||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.752||0.001|
|Low birthweight births (< 2500g)***||1||Secondary||4||151||-0.494||0.217||1||0.000||0.000||2||-0.494||0.023|
|Preterm birth (< 37 weeks)***||1||Secondary||5||457||-0.340||0.130||1||0.000||0.000||2||-0.340||0.009|
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