|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$210||Benefits minus costs||$2,238|
|Participants||$221||Benefit to cost ratio||$24.22|
|Others||$111||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,793||benefits greater than the costs||90 %|
|Net program cost||($96)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,238|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Health care associated with low birthweight births||$11||$0||$11||$6||$29|
|From secondary participant|
|Health care associated with low birthweight births||$100||$4||$100||$50||$255|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($48)||($48)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$99||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($96)|
|Comparison costs||$5||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Low birthweight births (< 2500g)***||26||Primary||3||793||-0.088||0.066||26||0.000||0.000||27||-0.088||0.183|
|Smoking during late pregnancy^||26||Primary||16||2370||-0.228||0.079||26||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.228||0.004|
|Low birthweight births (< 2500g)***||1||Secondary||3||793||-0.088||0.066||1||0.000||0.000||2||-0.088||0.183|
Albrecht, S.A., Caruthers, D., Patrick, T., Reynolds, M., Salamie, D., Higgins, L.W., . . . Mlynarchek, S. (2006). A randomized controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention for pregnant adolescents. Nursing Research, 55(6), 402-410.
Bullock, L., Everett, K.D., Mullen, P.D., Geden, E., Longo, D.R., & Madsen, R. (2009). Baby BEEP: A randomized controlled trial of nurses’ individualized social support for poor rural pregnant smokers. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 13(3), 395-406.
Cook, C., Ward, S., Myers, S., & Spinnato, J. (1995). A prospective, randomized evaluation of intensified therapy for smoking reduction in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology: Part 2, 172(1), 290.
Dornelas, E.A., Magnavita, J., Beazoglou, T., Fischer, E.H., Oncken, C., Lando, H., Greene, J., Barbagallo, J., Stepnowski, R., & Gregonis, E. (2006). Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a clinic-based counseling intervention tested in an ethnically diverse sample of pregnant smokers. Patient Education and Counseling, 64, 342-349.
El-Mohandes, A.A., El-Khorazaty, M.N., Kiely, M., & Gantz, M.G. (2011). Smoking cessation and relapse among pregnant African-American smokers in Washington, DC. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15, 96-105.
Ershoff, D.H., Quinn, V.P., Boyd, N.R., Stern, J., Gregory, M., & Wirtschafter, D. (1999). The Kaiser Permanente prenatal smoking cessation trial: when more isn't better, what is enough? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 17(3), 161-168.
McBride, C.M. (1999). Prevention of relapse in women who quit smoking during pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health, 89(5), 706-711.
Naughton, F., Prevost, A.T., Gilbert, H., & Sutton, S. (2012). Randomized controlled trial evaluation of a tailored leaflet and SMS text message self-help intervention for pregnant smokers (MiQuit). Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 14(5), 569-577.
Patten, C.A., Windsor, R.A., Renner, C.C., Enoch, C., Hochreiter, A., Nevak, C., . . . Brockman, T. (2010). Feasibility of a tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant Alaska Native women. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12(2), 79-87.
Rigotti, N.A., Park, E.R., Regan, S., Chang, Y., Perry, K., Loudin, B., & Quinn, V. (2006). Efficacy of telephone counseling for pregnant smokers. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 108(1), 83-92.
Ruger, J.P., Weinstein, M.C., Hammond, S.K., Kearney, M.H., & Emmons, K.M. (2008). Cost-effectiveness of motivational interviewing for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial. Value in Health, 11(2), 191-198.
Secker-Walker, R.H., Solomon, L.J., Flynn, B.S., Skelly, J.M., Lepage, S.S., Goodwin, G.D., & Mead, P.B. (1994). Individualized smoking cessation counseling during prenatal and early postnatal care. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 171(5), 1347-1355.
Secker-Walker, R.H., Solomon, L.J., Flynn, B.S., Skelly, J.M., & Mead, P.B. (1998). Reducing smoking during pregnancy and postpartum: physician's advice supported by individual counseling. Preventive Medicine, 27(3), 422-430.
Sexton, M., & Hebel, J.R. (1984). A clinical trial of change in maternal smoking and its effect on birth weight. Jama: the Journal of the American Medical Association, 251(7), 911-915.
Stotts, A.L., Diclemente, C.C., & Dolan-Mullen, P. (2002). One-to-one: A motivational intervention for resistant pregnant smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 27(2), 275-292.
Stotts, A.L., DeLaune, K.A., Schmitz, J.M., & Grabowski, J. (2004). Impact of a motivational intervention on mechanisms of change in low-income pregnant smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 29(8), 1649-1657.
Stotts, A.L., Groff, J.Y., Velasquez, M.M., Benjamin-Garner, R., Green, C., Carbonari, J.P., & DiClemente, C.C. (2009). Ultrasound feedback and motivational interviewing targeting smoking cessation in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11(8), 961-968.