|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$204||Benefits minus costs||$2,168|
|Participants||$215||Benefit to cost ratio||$23.90|
|Others||$109||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$1,735||benefits greater than the costs||89 %|
|Net program cost||($95)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,168|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Health care associated with low birthweight births||$11||$0||$11||$5||$28|
|From secondary participant|
|Health care associated with low birthweight births||$98||$4||$98||$49||$248|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($47)||($47)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$99||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($95)|
|Comparison costs||$5||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Low birthweight births***||Primary||3||793||-0.088||0.066||26||0.000||0.000||27||-0.088||0.183|
|Smoking during late pregnancy^||Primary||16||2370||-0.228||0.079||26||0.000||0.000||27||-0.228||0.004|
|Low birthweight births***||Secondary||3||793||-0.088||0.066||1||0.000||0.000||2||-0.088||0.183|
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