|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,447||Benefits minus costs||($38,597)|
|Participants||$10,450||Benefit to cost ratio||$0.04|
|Others||$6,782||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($20,065)||benefits greater than the costs||19 %|
|Net program cost||($40,211)|
|Benefits minus cost||($38,597)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with employment||($2,495)||($5,495)||$0||$0||($7,990)|
|From secondary participant|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$6,913||$15,224||$6,780||$0||$28,917|
|K-12 grade repetition||$39||$0||$0||$19||$58|
|K-12 special education||$1,686||$0||$0||$839||$2,525|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$2||$0||$2||$1||$4|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($20,076)||($20,076)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$13,636||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($40,211)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||25 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||1||Secondary||2||334||-0.001||0.107||8||0.000||0.064||11||-0.001||0.996|
|K-12 grade repetition||1||Secondary||1||338||-0.044||0.229||8||-0.044||0.229||8||-0.044||0.849|
|K-12 special education||1||Secondary||1||338||-0.112||0.209||8||-0.112||0.209||8||-0.112||0.592|
|Preschool test scores^||1||Secondary||2||347||0.506||0.184||3||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.506||0.006|
Brooks-Gunn, J., McCormick, M.C., Shapiro, S., Benasich, A.A., & Black, G.W. (1994). The effects of early education intervention on maternal employment, public assistance, and health insurance: The Infant Health and Development Program. American Journal of Public Health, 84(6), 924-931.
Gross, R.T., Spiker, D., & Haynes, C.W. (1997). Helping low birth weight, premature babies: The infant health and development program. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
Infant Health and Development Program. (1990). Enhancing the outcomes of low-birth-weight, premature infants: A multisite, randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(22), 3035-3042.
Martin, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., Klebanov, P., Buka, S.L., & McCormick, M.C. (2008). Long-term maternal effects of early childhood intervention: Findings from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP). Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(2), 101-117.
McCarton, C.M., Brooks-Gunn, J., Wallace, I.F., Bauer, C.R., Bennett, F.C., Bernbaum, J.C., Broyles, S., Casey, P.H., McCormick, M.C., Scott, D.T., Tyson, J., & Tonascia, C.M. (1997). Results at age 8 years of early intervention for low-birth-weight premature infants: The Infant Health and Development Program. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(2), 126-132.
McCormick, M.C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Buka, S.L., Goldman, J., Yu, J., Salganik, M., Scott, D.T., Bennett, F.C., Kay, L.L., Bernbaum, J.C., Bauer, C.R., Martin, C., Woods, E.R., Martin, A., & Casey, P.H. (2006). Early intervention in low birth weight premature infants: Results at 18 years of age for the infant health and development program. Pediatrics, 117(3), 771-780.