|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$8,340||Benefits minus costs||$25,473|
|Participants||$14,255||Benefit to cost ratio||$18.11|
|Others||$4,603||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($236)||benefits greater than the costs||71 %|
|Net program cost||($1,489)|
|Benefits minus cost||$25,473|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$8,346||$18,378||$8,401||$0||$35,126|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||($1,028)||($2,264)||($1,013)||$0||($4,305)|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$1,988||($544)||($2,171)||$1,001||$275|
|Costs of higher education||($874)||($1,315)||($394)||($442)||($3,025)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($749)||($749)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,474||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($1,489)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Grade point average^||4||1478||-0.004||0.037||12||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.001||0.976|
|High school graduation||1||66||0.262||0.265||18||0.262||0.265||18||0.689||0.029|
|Office discipline referrals^||1||16||-0.360||0.356||12||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.948||0.011|
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