|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$4,608||Benefits minus costs||$7,777|
|Participants||$7,245||Benefit to cost ratio||$2.40|
|Others||$3,742||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($2,278)||benefits greater than the costs||59 %|
|Net program cost||($5,539)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,777|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$3,671||$8,084||$3,707||$0||$15,462|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Health care associated with educational attainment||$868||($238)||($950)||$432||$111|
|Costs of higher education||($399)||($601)||($180)||($199)||($1,380)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($2,745)||($2,745)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$4,236||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($5,539)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||141 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use before end of middle school||1||76||-0.037||0.224||16||-0.037||0.224||26||-0.119||0.596|
|Cannabis use before end of middle school||1||76||-0.081||0.224||16||-0.081||0.224||26||-0.260||0.246|
|Grade point average^||3||322||0.033||0.087||16||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.106||0.226|
|High school graduation||2||758||0.101||0.143||18||0.101||0.143||18||0.293||0.040|
|Illicit drug use before end of middle school||1||235||-0.064||0.488||16||-0.064||0.488||26||-0.205||0.675|
|Illicit drug use in high school^^||1||43||-0.352||0.224||16||-0.352||0.224||26||-0.352||0.117|
|Smoking in high school^^||1||43||-0.212||0.223||16||-0.212||0.223||26||-0.212||0.343|
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