|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$562||Benefits minus costs||$2,773|
|Participants||$71||Benefit to cost ratio||$8.62|
|Others||$88||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$2,416||benefits greater than the costs||73 %|
|Net program cost||($364)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,773|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
An event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Falls||Health care associated with falls||$562||$71||$88||$281||$1,002|
|Mortality associated with falls||$0||$0||$0||$2,316||$2,316|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($182)||($182)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$233||2016||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($364)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2016||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Ng, T.P., Feng, L., Nyunt, M.S., Feng, L., Niti, M., Tan, B.Y., Chan, G., . . . Yap, K.B. (2015). Nutritional, physical, cognitive, and combination interventions and frailty reversal among older adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The American Journal of Medicine, 128 (11), 1225-1236.
Rubenstein, L.Z., Josephson, K.R., Trueblood, P.R., Loy, S., Harker, J.O., Pietruszka, F.M., & Robbins, A.S. (2000). Effects of a group exercise program on strength, mobility, and falls among fall-prone elderly men. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55 (6), 317-21.
Trombetti, A., Hars, M., Herrmann, F.R., Kressig, R.W., Ferrari, S., & Rizzoli, R. (2011). Effect of music-based multitask training on gait, balance, and fall risk in elderly people. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171 (6).
Uusi-Rasi, K., Patil, R., Karinkanta, S., Kannus, P., Tokola, K., Lamberg-Allardt, C., & Sievänen, H. (2015). Exercise and vitamin D in fall prevention among older women: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA internal medicine, 175 (5), 703-711.