|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,168||Benefits minus costs||$2,339|
|Participants||$1,255||Benefit to cost ratio||$3.36|
|Others||$1,098||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($191)||benefits greater than the costs||86 %|
|Net program cost||($992)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,339|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$555||$1,221||$559||$0||$2,335|
|K-12 grade repetition||$7||$0||$0||$4||$11|
|K-12 special education||$249||$0||$0||$125||$373|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$364||$119||$451||$182||$1,115|
|Costs of higher education||($56)||($84)||($25)||($28)||($194)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($498)||($498)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,792||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($992)|
|Comparison costs||$881||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||5||5||150||-0.336||0.122||7||-0.160||0.093||10||-0.866||0.001|
Connell, S., Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C. (1997). Self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of oppositional children in rural and remote areas. Behavior Modification, 21(4), 379-408.
Markie-Dadds, C., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). A controlled evaluation of an enhanced self-directed behavioural family intervention for parents of children with conduct problems in rural and remote areas. Behaviour Change, 23(1), 55-72.
Markie-Dadds, C., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Self-directed Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) for mothers with children at-risk of developing conduct problems. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34(3), 259-276.
Nicholson, J. M., & Sanders, M. R. (1999). Randomized controlled trial of behavioral family intervention for the treatment of child behavior problems in stepfamilies. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 30(3/4), 1-23.
Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L. A., & Bor, W. (2000). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 624-640.