|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,075||Benefits minus costs||$5,115|
|Participants||$3,227||Benefit to cost ratio||$7.66|
|Others||$627||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($47)||benefits greater than the costs||60 %|
|Net program cost||($768)|
|Benefits minus cost||$5,115|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$124||$274||$125||$0||$523|
|K-12 grade repetition||$3||$0||$0||$1||$4|
|K-12 special education||$198||$0||$0||$99||$297|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$328||$93||$338||$164||$922|
|Costs of higher education||($20)||($30)||($9)||($10)||($70)|
|From secondary participant|
|Health care associated with major depression||$130||$37||$134||$65||$366|
|Labor market earnings associated with anxiety disorder||$1,296||$2,854||$0||$0||$4,150|
|Mortality associated with depression||$0||$1||$0||$10||$11|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($385)||($385)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,730||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($768)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||6||Primary||7||311||-0.112||0.096||6||-0.062||0.064||9||-0.761||0.001|
|Major depressive disorder^^||6||Primary||1||26||-0.208||0.495||6||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.910||0.124|
|Major depressive disorder||35||Secondary||2||79||-0.094||0.201||35||-0.049||0.246||37||-0.411||0.043|
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