|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,022||Benefits minus costs||$3,589|
|Participants||$523||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$837||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$684||benefits greater than the costs||97 %|
|Net program cost||$522|
|Benefits minus cost||$3,589|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$175||$412||$225||$0||$813|
|K-12 grade repetition||$5||$0||$0||$2||$7|
|K-12 special education||$298||$0||$0||$149||$448|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$544||$154||$561||$272||$1,530|
|Costs of higher education||($28)||($43)||($13)||($14)||($97)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$261||$261|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$449||2017||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||$522|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||30 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||6||Primary||7||249||-0.183||0.094||6||-0.101||0.071||9||-0.676||0.001|
|Major depressive disorder^^||35||Secondary||1||20||0.208||0.326||35||n/a||n/a||n/a||0.401||0.222|
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