|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,958||Benefits minus costs||$10,127|
|Participants||$3,814||Benefit to cost ratio||$66.29|
|Others||$2,891||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$619||benefits greater than the costs||76 %|
|Net program cost||($155)|
|Benefits minus cost||$10,127|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,796||$3,954||$1,805||$0||$7,554|
|K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$4|
|K-12 special education||$399||$0||$0||$199||$599|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$4||$8||$0||$12|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||$914||$258||$943||$456||$2,571|
|Costs of higher education||($270)||($409)||($123)||($135)||($938)|
|Mortality associated with smoking||$3||$7||$0||$117||$127|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($77)||($77)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$73||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($155)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use disorder||7||1||176||-0.118||0.322||20||-0.118||0.322||30||-0.312||0.374|
|Antisocial personality disorder^||7||1||179||-0.112||0.294||20||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.295||0.350|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||7||1||263||-0.270||0.092||9||0.000||0.141||10||-0.270||0.004|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||7||2||425||-0.586||0.124||8||-0.322||0.158||11||-0.586||0.001|
|High school graduation||7||2||181||0.075||0.145||20||0.075||0.145||20||0.198||0.183|
|Illicit drug use disorder||7||2||181||-0.095||0.209||20||-0.095||0.209||30||-0.242||0.264|
|Major depressive disorder||7||3||424||-0.118||0.145||15||0.000||0.310||17||-0.126||0.388|
|Smoking in high school||7||1||348||-0.073||0.083||13||-0.073||0.083||18||-0.193||0.023|
|Smoking before end of middle school||7||1||263||-0.238||0.092||11||-0.238||0.092||14||-0.238||0.010|
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