|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,760||Benefits minus costs||$10,510|
|Participants||$4,297||Benefit to cost ratio||$65.47|
|Others||$3,299||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$315||benefits greater than the costs||70 %|
|Net program cost||($163)|
|Benefits minus cost||$10,510|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$1,978||$4,355||$1,994||$0||$8,327|
|K-12 grade repetition||$8||$0||$0||$4||$12|
|K-12 special education||$37||$0||$0||$18||$55|
|Health care associated with smoking||$695||$226||$861||$350||$2,132|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$8||$14||$0||$22|
|Costs of higher education||($194)||($292)||($87)||($98)||($671)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($82)||($82)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$78||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($163)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use disorder||1||176||-0.231||0.128||20||-0.231||0.128||30||-0.609||0.001|
|Antisocial personality disorder^||1||179||-0.112||0.128||20||-0.112||0.128||25||-0.295||0.032|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||1||425||-0.437||0.084||12||-0.208||0.098||15||-0.437||0.001|
|High school graduation||1||175||0.062||0.119||20||0.062||0.119||20||0.162||0.174|
|Illicit drug use disorder||1||175||-0.115||0.089||20||-0.115||0.089||30||-0.304||0.001|
|Major depressive disorder||2||399||-0.135||0.124||20||-0.070||0.152||22||-0.178||0.160|
|Smoking before end of middle school||2||540||-0.088||0.071||12||-0.088||0.071||15||-0.231||0.002|
Kellam, S.G., & Anthony, J.C. (1998). Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: Findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial. American Journal of Public Health, 88(10), 1488-1495.
Kellam, S.G., Reid, J., & Balster, R.L. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior program in first and second grades on young adult problem outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(Suppl. 1), S1-S4.
Petras, H., Kellam, S.G., Poduska, J.M., Brown, C.H., Muthen, B.O., & Ialongo, N.S. (2008). Developmental epidemiological courses leading to antisocial personality disorder and violent and criminal behavior: Effects by young adulthood of a universal preventive intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(Suppl. 1), S45-S59.
Storr, C.L., Ialongo, N.S., Kellam, S.G., & Anthony, J.C. (2002). A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 66(1), 51-60.
Vuijk, P., van Lier, P.A.C., Crijnen, A.A.M., & Huizink, A.C. (2007). Testing sex-specific pathways from peer victimization to anxiety and depression in early adolescents through a randomized intervention trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 100(1-3), 221-226.
Wilcox, H.C., Kellam, S.G., Brown, C.H., Poduska, J.M., Ialongo, N.S., Wang, W., & Anthony, J.C. (2008). The impact of two universal randomized first- and second-grade classroom interventions on young adult suicide ideation and attempts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(Suppl. 1), S60-S73.
Witvliet, M., van Lier, P.A.C., Cuijpers, P., & Koot, H.M. (2009). Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 905-915.