|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$2,704||Benefits minus costs||$10,850|
|Participants||$5,315||Benefit to cost ratio||$72.07|
|Others||$2,975||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$9||benefits greater than the costs||70 %|
|Net program cost||($153)|
|Benefits minus cost||$10,850|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$2,533||$5,578||$2,583||$0||$10,695|
|K-12 grade repetition||$2||$0||$0||$1||$3|
|K-12 special education||$43||$0||$0||$21||$65|
|Health care associated with smoking||$357||$116||$442||$176||$1,090|
|Property loss associated with alcohol abuse or dependence||$0||$4||$8||$0||$12|
|Costs of higher education||($255)||($384)||($115)||($126)||($879)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($76)||($76)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$73||2011||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($153)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2011||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Alcohol use disorder||7||1||176||-0.118||0.322||20||-0.118||0.322||30||-0.312||0.374|
|Antisocial personality disorder^||7||1||179||-0.112||0.294||20||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.295||0.350|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||7||1||263||-0.270||0.092||9||0.000||0.014||10||-0.270||0.004|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||7||2||425||-0.586||0.124||8||-0.279||0.134||11||-0.586||0.001|
|High school graduation||7||2||181||0.075||0.145||20||0.075||0.145||20||0.198||0.183|
|Illicit drug use disorder||7||2||181||-0.095||0.209||20||-0.095||0.209||30||-0.242||0.264|
|Major depressive disorder||7||3||424||-0.118||0.145||15||0.000||0.015||16||-0.126||0.388|
|Smoking before end of middle school||7||1||263||-0.238||0.092||11||-0.238||0.092||13||-0.238||0.010|
|Smoking in high school||7||1||348||-0.073||0.083||13||-0.073||0.083||18||-0.193||0.023|
Breeman, L.D., van Lier, P.A., Wubbels, T., Verhulst, F.C., van der Ende, J., Maras, A., . . . Tick, N.T. (2016). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on the behavioral, emotional, and social problems of children with psychiatric disorders in special education settings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(3), 156–167.
Furr-Holden, C.D.M., Ialongo, N.S., Anthony, J.C., Petras, H., & Kellam, S.G. (2004). Developmentally inspired drug prevention: Middle school outcomes in a school-based randomized prevention trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 73(2), 149.
Healthy Child Manitoba. (2016). Improving the early mental health and well-being of Manitoba’s children: First findings from the province wide pilot and evaluation of PAX.
Huizink, A.C., van Lier, P.A.C., & Crijnen, A.A.M. (2009). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking. European Addiction Research, 15(1), 1-9.
Ialongo, N., Poduska, J., Werthamer, L., & Kellam, S. (2001). The distal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on conduct problems and disorder in early adolescence. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9(3), 146-160.
Kellam, S.G., & Anthony, J.C. (1998). Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: Findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial. American Journal of Public Health, 88(10), 1488-1495.
Kellam, S.G., Reid, J., & Balster, R.L. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior program in first and second grades on young adult problem outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(Suppl. 1), S1-S4.
Kellam, S.G., Ialongo, N.S., Wang, W., Mackenzie, A.C.L., Brown, C.H., Ompad, D.C., Or, F., Ialongo, N., Poduska, J., & Windham, A. (2014). The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood. Prevention Science, 15, 6-18.
Petras, H., Kellam, S.G., Poduska, J.M., Brown, C.H., Muthen, B.O., & Ialongo, N.S. (2008). Developmental epidemiological courses leading to antisocial personality disorder and violent and criminal behavior: Effects by young adulthood of a universal preventive intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(Suppl. 1), S45-S59.
Smith, E.P., Osgood, D.W., Oh, Y., & Caldwell, L.C. (2018). Promoting afterschool quality and positive youth development: Cluster randomized trial of the PAX Good Behavior Game. Prevention Science, 19(2), 159-173.
Storr, C.L., Ialongo, N.S., Kellam, S.G., & Anthony, J.C. (2002). A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 66(1), 51-60.
Vuijk, P., van Lier, P.A.C., Crijnen, A.A.M., & Huizink, A.C. (2007). Testing sex-specific pathways from peer victimization to anxiety and depression in early adolescents through a randomized intervention trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 100(1-3), 221-226.
Wilcox, H.C., Kellam, S.G., Brown, C.H., Poduska, J.M., Ialongo, N.S., Wang, W., & Anthony, J.C. (2008). The impact of two universal randomized first- and second-grade classroom interventions on young adult suicide ideation and attempts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(Suppl. 1), S60-S73.
Witvliet, M., van Lier, P.A.C., Cuijpers, P., & Koot, H.M. (2009). Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 905-915.