|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$681||Benefits minus costs||$1,885|
|Participants||$347||Benefit to cost ratio||n/a|
|Others||$526||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$296||benefits greater than the costs||79 %|
|Net program cost||$35|
|Benefits minus cost||$1,885|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$125||$276||$127||$0||$529|
|K-12 grade repetition||$3||$0||$0||$2||$5|
|K-12 special education||$196||$0||$0||$99||$295|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$358||$101||$369||$179||$1,008|
|Costs of higher education||($20)||($31)||($9)||($10)||($70)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||$18||$18|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$901||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||$35|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||5||Primary||5||104||-0.130||0.145||5||-0.072||0.092||8||-0.849||0.001|
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