|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($146)||Benefits minus costs||($2,108)|
|Participants||($216)||Benefit to cost ratio||($1.01)|
|Others||($151)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($547)||benefits greater than the costs||8 %|
|Net program cost||($1,049)|
|Benefits minus cost||($2,108)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||($102)||($224)||($103)||$0||($429)|
|K-12 grade repetition||($1)||$0||$0||($1)||($2)|
|K-12 special education||($19)||$0||$0||($10)||($28)|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||($27)||($9)||($33)||($13)||($82)|
|Costs of higher education||$11||$17||$5||$6||$38|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($525)||($525)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,913||2010||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($1,049)|
|Comparison costs||$950||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||9||7||96||0.015||0.152||10||0.000||0.008||11||0.040||0.791|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||9||2||42||0.148||0.362||10||0.071||0.189||12||0.148||0.682|
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