|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$889||Benefits minus costs||$2,314|
|Participants||$490||Benefit to cost ratio||$31.97|
|Others||$693||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||$316||benefits greater than the costs||96 %|
|Net program cost||($75)|
|Benefits minus cost||$2,314|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||$184||$405||$186||$0||$776|
|K-12 grade repetition||$4||$0||$0||$2||$6|
|K-12 special education||$258||$0||$0||$129||$387|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||$447||$126||$461||$224||$1,258|
|Costs of higher education||($27)||($41)||($12)||($14)||($95)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($37)||($37)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$1,008||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2017 dollars)||($75)|
|Comparison costs||$868||2010||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||Primary or secondary participant||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms||7||Primary||4||158||-0.072||0.119||7||0.000||0.141||8||-0.310||0.035|
|Disruptive behavior disorder symptoms||7||Primary||13||754||-0.149||0.057||7||-0.082||0.049||10||-0.526||0.001|
Behan, J., Fitzpatrick, C., Sharry, J., Carr, A., & Waldron, B. (2001). Evaluation of the Parenting Plus Programme. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 22(3-4), 238-256.
Chacko, A., Gopalan, G., Franco, L., Dean-Assael, K., Jackson, J., Marcus, S., Hoagwood, K., ... McKay, M. (2015). Multiple family group service model for children with disruptive behavior disorders: Child outcomes at post-treatment. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 23(2), 67-77.
Coughlin, M., Sharry, J., Fitzpatrick, C., Guerin, S., & Drumm, M. (2009). A controlled clinical evaluation of the parents plus children's programme: A video-based programme for parents of children aged 6 to 11 with behavioural and developmental problems. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14(4), 541-558.
Day, C., Michelson, D., Thomson, S., Penney, C., & Draper, L. (2012). Evaluation of a peer led parenting intervention for disruptive behaviour problems in children: Community based randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 344.
Enebrink, P., Hogstrom, J., Forster, M., & Ghaderi, A. (2012). Internet-based parent management training: A randomized controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 240-249.
Gavita, O.A., David, D., Bujoreanu, S., Tiba, A., & Ionutiu, D.R. (2012). The efficacy of a short cognitive-behavioral parent program in the treatment of externalizing behavior disorders in Romanian foster care children: Building parental emotion-regulation through unconditional self- and child-acceptance strategies. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(7), 1290-1297.
Hamilton, S.B., & MacQuiddy, S.L. (1984). Self-administered behavioral parent training: Enhancement of treatment efficacy using a time-out signal seat. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 13(1), 61-69.
Kierfeld, F., Ise, E., Hanisch, C., Görtz-Dorten, A., & Döpfner, M. (2013). Effectiveness of telephone-assisted parent-administered behavioural family intervention for preschool children with externalizing problem behaviour: A randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(9), 553-565.
Landy, S., & Menna, R. (2006). An evaluation of a group intervention for parents with aggressive young children: Improvements in child functioning, maternal confidence, parenting knowledge and attitudes. Early Child Development and Care, 176(6), 605-620.
Luk, E.S.L., Staiger, P., Mathai, J., Field, D., & Adler, R. (1998). Comparison of treatments of persistent conduct problems in primary school children: A preliminary evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural approach. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32(3), 379-386.
Sayger, T.V., Horne, A.M., Walker, J.M., & Passmore, J.L. (1988). Social learning family therapy with aggressive children: Treatment outcome and maintenance. Journal of Family Psychology, 1(3), 261-285.
Sourander, A., McGrath, P. J., Ristkari, T., Cunningham, C., Huttunen, J., Lingley-Pottie, P., Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, S., ... Unruh, A. (2016). Internet-assisted parent training intervention for disruptive behavior in 4-year-old children: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(4), 378.
Zangwill, W.M. (1983). An evaluation of a parent training program. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 5(4), 1-16.