|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,826||Benefits minus costs||$7,127|
|Participants||$4,067||Benefit to cost ratio||$20.80|
|Others||$1,800||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($205)||benefits greater than the costs||63 %|
|Net program cost||($360)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,127|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,879||$4,137||$1,822||$0||$7,838|
|K-12 grade repetition||($5)||$0||$0||($3)||($8)|
|K-12 special education||$0||$0||$0||$0||($1)|
|Health care associated with disruptive behavior disorder||($1)||$0||($1)||$0||($2)|
|Costs of higher education||($46)||($70)||($21)||($23)||($159)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($179)||($179)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$119||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2016 dollars)||($360)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment Age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes (ES) and standard errors (SE) used in the benefit-cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||6||9||4149||0.033||0.026||6||0.001||0.219||9||0.029||0.281|
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