|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,793||Benefits minus costs||$7,872|
|Participants||$4,429||Benefit to cost ratio||$22.09|
|Others||$2,260||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($237)||benefits greater than the costs||62 %|
|Net program cost||($373)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,872|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,893||$4,447||$2,346||$0||$8,687|
|K-12 grade repetition||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|K-12 special education||($26)||$0||$0||($13)||($39)|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||($66)||($19)||($68)||($33)||($185)|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($187)||($187)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$119||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($373)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||6||9||4149||0.033||0.026||6||0.018||0.018||9||0.029||0.281|
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