Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($2,556)||Benefits minus costs||($24,531)|
|Participants||($1,275)||Benefit to cost ratio||($1.41)|
|Others||($4,443)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($6,088)||benefits greater than the costs||2 %|
|Net program cost||($10,169)|
|Benefits minus cost||($24,531)|
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Benefits from changes to:1||Benefits to:|
|Labor market earnings||($543)||($1,276)||$0||$0||($1,819)|
|Property loss associated with problem alcohol use||$0||$0||$1||$0||$1|
|Health care associated with problem alcohol use||$3||$1||$3||$2||$9|
|Mortality associated with problem alcohol||$0||$0||$0||$3||$3|
|Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($5,085)||($5,085)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$9,690||2015||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($10,169)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2015||Cost range (+ or -)||20 %|
|Estimated Cumulative Net Benefits Over Time (Non-Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in non-discounted dollars to simplify the “break-even” point from a budgeting perspective. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
|Enroll in any college^||19||1||404||-0.157||0.125||20||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.157||0.209|
|Illicit drug use^||19||1||330||-0.021||0.108||19||n/a||n/a||n/a||-0.021||0.846|
|Problem alcohol use||19||1||330||-0.031||0.086||19||-0.004||0.128||21||-0.031||0.720|
Skemer, M. & Valentine, E.J. (2016). Striving for Independence: Two-Year Impact Findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation. New York, NY: MDRC.
Valentine, E.J., Skemer, M., & Courtney, M.E. (2015). Becoming Adults: One-Year Impact Findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation. New York, NY: MDRC.