Court-involved youth: Youth who are processed through the juvenile justice system but who are not ordered to a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility. This includes populations of arrested youth, diverted youth, charged youth, adjudicated youth, and youth on probation or formal supervision.
Youth in state institutions: Youth who are confined in a residential or correctional facility when they participate in the program.
Youth post-release: Youth who are returning to the community following a period of confinement in a residential or correctional facility and who participate in the program after release to the community.
|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||($500)||Benefits minus costs||($2,217)|
|Participants||($119)||Benefit to cost ratio||($13.98)|
|Others||($1,156)||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($294)||benefits greater than the costs||41 %|
|Net program cost||($148)|
|Benefits minus cost||($2,217)|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Any criminal conviction according to court records, sometimes measured through charges, arrests, incarceration, or self-report.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Crime||Criminal justice system||($453)||$0||($1,085)||($227)||($1,765)|
|Labor market earnings associated with high school graduation||($59)||($139)||($77)||$0||($276)|
|Costs of higher education||$13||$20||$6||$7||$45|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($74)||($74)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$146||2018||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($148)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2018||Cost range (+ or -)||50 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Jewell, J.D., Malone, M.D., Rose, P., Sturgeon, D., & Owens, S. (2015). A multiyear follow-up study examining the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral group therapy program on the recidivism of juveniles on probation. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 59 (3), 259-272.
Pullen, S. (1996). Evaluation of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation cognitive skills development program as implemented in juvenile ISP in Colorado. Denver: Colorado Department of Public Safety, Division of Criminal Justice.